Tools you probably didn’t know you had – Windows Edition

Update 05-03-2018

Shortly after posting this, Microsoft released their Command Line Reference document.  Recommend pulling this down as it covers all the commands available in Windows.

For those of us that have been in the industry for a while now, we have picked up a number of these in our daily activities.  Whether you are a systems administrator/engineer, desktop support, or help desk, these commands will help you get the job done.  They don’t require any installation and can be found built-in to all versions of Windows from XP to Server 2016.  As management is so enthralled with buying the latest products to get the job done, it is still beneficial to learn about these utilities and what they can accomplish.  Please refer to the links for additional options that the commands support. Continue reading

Shodan for the IT Pro

So there you are dropping by your customers and making sure their servers are patched and systems are running normally.  For security you make sure AV is running and the firewalls are configured, but what are you missing?  Do the customers have access to make changes to the firewalls?  Do they have marketing teams or engineering groups who stand up systems outside the company?  How can you determine what is out there for your clients??

Shodan IP Camera Search

Well that is where something like Shodan comes into play.  It is the Internet of Things search engine.  You can search for everything from IP web cameras to industrial control systems.  But what does that all mean to the IT Consultant just trying to keep their clients online and running?  Well lets talk about those engineers or marketing people.  Shodan allows you to search for everything from IP addresses/networks, protocols/ports, and keywords.  The free version will let you search for the basic web protocols – 80, 443, 23, 21, etc… Using the a paid subscription you will gain access to searches for any ports as well as the ability to run reports.  This has been a well known tool to those of us in the Information Security industry, whether we are performing recon activities for a penetration test or building intelligence for organizational threat assessment.  Or just simply identifying possible shadow IT systems deployed without our knowledge.

Shodan Organization Search

So what value is this to the IT pro?  Well you can perform checks of your clients IP space or perform an organization search – org:”Your Company Name”.  This will typically display the information from the TLS certificate.  From there you can review the IP and host names and run additional checks on the network ranges.  This is just he tip of the ice berg with what is available from Shodan.  They have APIs available that can be used with scripting languages such as Python and even Powershell.  Scripts can be written to schedule regular checks on specific terms or searches of known address spaces.  This becomes a great resource for those smaller organizations that do not have the large budgets to perform full threat assessments or implement threat intelligence practices.  And at the very least it makes for a fun Saturday morning activity while you have your coffee.

InfoSec Talent Shortage

So this has been an ongoing discussion in the industry for a while now.  As companies continue to grow and expand their digital footprint, they expose themselves to a greater number of threats.  In turn they need people to manage the monitoring and mitigation of those threats as well as the remediation when things go south.  So the solution that all the research firms recommend is to hire an MSSP, because they can do all the things!

How do the MSSPs fill their positions?

That is a question that should be asked when considering that path.  Some suggest the MSSPs pull from cheaper labor pools.  If that is the case, then what are you actually getting when signing up with these providers?  If you are getting cheap labor then you are either getting under-skilled analysts and engineers, or barely entry level prospects with the ability to read a script and follow a basic procedure.  The information security industry is not an entry level service.  The “junior” analyst needs to have a general understanding of what the based technologies are and how they work.  If they are looking through logs and see an IP address, they should know how to look that up and find information about it.  Or if a website isn’t loading correctly, where to look to see if it is a network issue, web filtering, or simply just a bad site.  On the flip side, a junior analyst would need to know how best to pull in a lot of data and turn it into a presentable format to show to the customer.  That being said, are their “senior” analysts just the juniors with more training?  How many of the MSSP’s staff are actually veteran IT/InfoSec professionals?  How many have had to build and support their own infrastructure?  Or are they just good readers and simply email you a canned alert from your SIEM and say “it might be something…”  Or are they truly skilled people and the MSSP is offering some pretty good incentives to come work for them?

What are we not offering to entice the skilled labor our way?

  • Are we not offering competitive salary and benefits?
  • Do we not provide enough training opportunities?
  • What are prospects looking for?

Salary and benefits are great to peak some interest, but frankly if it is truly competitive, at some point there is a ceiling and it won’t mean much to a seasoned security architect or engineer.  They might be looking for a fun challenge or perhaps a good balance between work and life.  This industry provides its share of challenges both fun and frustrating.  That last bit can lead to some pretty heavy burnout which then leads to people exiting those positions or worse, staying too long they become a toxic member of the team.  Burnout and stress can lead to poor health, so all the money in the world is no good if you are spending all your time in doctors’ offices trying to figure out why you aren’t sleeping or have a sudden heart condition.

Training!  Offer it and don’t be cheap about it.  It’s the old argument “what if we train them and they leave… but what if we don’t and they stay”.  Those of us in the industry are not new to self-education but you as an employer cannot expect that we want to use our free time to learn something that is related to a specific technology we use in that particular job.  For example, if we are interested in IoT security research and we spend our free time in our home labs tearing down the latest IP camera to see how it works, we don’t want to share that time with going through the vendor training for our latest spam filtering service.  That should be done with reserved time in the office.  Now if you offered the latest in SANS training, then you might peak our interest.  This is vendor agnostic training that promotes principals and techniques over various subject matters in InfoSec.  Sure the classes are expensive, but they are worth every penny.  Many can be done remotely or in self-paced virtual classes.  That means no travel expenses!

So money isn’t everything, do you offer decent enough vacation time and will your prospects be able to take it?  Time off is no good if the prospect is the only member of an incident response team and is on call 24/7.  Be realistic in your expectations of the position and be able to support time off for your staff.  But even vacation time may not be a big seller, specially if it includes sick time as part of the bank (generic PTO vs separated vacation and sick time).  Maybe your prospect is looking for an employer who is active in the community and in turn encourage speaking opportunities both inside and outside of the company.  One other possible opportunity is what career paths are available to your prospects?  Will there be manager opportunities or senior lead/sme positions available?  Not everyone wants to be a CIO and there are usually plenty of managers.

So how do we fix this?

There will be no simple solutions to this, in many cases, you have to realize there is not a lot of difference between your org and the one next door.  You both have similar problems to solve and need similar positions filled.  At the end of the day it makes little difference to your prospect if you sell X widget and they sell Y.  In the end we like puzzles that have possible solutions, not a mess of knotted Christmas lights that keep coming.

n00bsec – but what is it to be a n00b in Infosec

So there was some minor drama at this year’s hacker summer camp (Defcon, BSidesLV, Blackhat).  It appears to have been around a possible con from the group @InfosecN00bs (#n00bsec).  You can read the full blog post on what went down here.

Essentially this started out as a group of “n00bs” trying to break into InfoSec.  If you dig around they are not the first group of this type but what is interesting is they tried to start a crowd funding campaign to pay for certain members to attend the big cons.  Well it was a big scam apparently, but we won’t go into that.  This whole thing got me thinking and it is one of those topics that grinds my gears!

What is it to be a n00b in InfoSec?  Well in truth, there really shouldn’t be too many.  Infosec is not an entry level career.  Many of us in the industry did not start here.  We stumbled, fell, or accidentally opened the wrong door.  But before all that we worked the help desks, built servers, created web sites, and told users to “turn it off and on again!”  We started our journey learning how to do all these things.  Some of us did them well enough to realize that these systems had flaws.  At that point we decided to switch those gears into a security focused career.  I still laugh at the fact that someone is paying me double to tell them the same things I told them years ago as a Sys Admin.

So what I am trying to get at is, that although we may have been new to the InfoSec industry, we were hardly inexperienced.  We had a good deal of base knowledge to work off of.  That is what is important when it comes to experience.  Now for those entering the scene today, there is a wealth of information available.  Many of the pros are willing to help new folks along, but they will not be there to hold your hand.  You will need to work a bit.  Do your own research, study the topics, and make your way out to the local community events.  You don’t need to head right to Defcon, but maybe try a local Security BSides event or a meetup activity.  This is not a career for those looking for a handout or in it just for the money.  It is for those who will throw up a learning lab at home or a virtual lab on AWS just to try things out.

And some final thoughts… You are ultimately on your own when it comes to building your skills.  But when you get stuck and google has failed you, reach out and someone will point you in the right direction.  You can also reference my previous post to get a list of places to start.  If a pro offers you guidance, accept it and thank them, maybe buy them a beer if you see them at a Con.  But don’t get pissed if you try to pump them for more than they are willing to provide.  They don’t have lots of free time to devote to mentoring.  Rather why not follow them on social media or subscribe to their podcast or blog.

Go out there and learn n00bs! 😀




AnyCon 2017 Review

I will preface this review by stating that putting on such events is by far not an easy task.  There is a ton of planning that goes into these.  On the day of the event not everything will go as planned and you will have to improvise.  Speakers will pull out, a sponsor may not deliver, or your CTF has a bunch of technical problems.  But you push through and rely on your team to help you through it.

On to the review…

This past weekend I was able to attend the first annual AnyCon security conference which took place at the Albany Capitol Center.  Overall, it was not a bad conference for a first time run.  It was the typical large conference setup with keynotes from Dave Kennedy (TrustedSec, Binary Defense, DerbyCon) and Sanjay Goel (University of Albany).  There were three tracks – Offensive, Defensive, and Educational.  For the full track listing you can hit the site up  In between the talks you could head over to their onsite CTF, hardware hacking village, or play some ping pong.

The Content – As expected for a first run conference.

It was your typical set of conference talks.  Irongeek (Adrian Crenshaw) has them all posted up on his YouTube Channel.  I will let you be the judge of their quality.  Some of the talks certainly showed that pool of submitted content was not very deep and no real due diligence was done to vet the speakers.  One speaker, in fact, claimed during his talk that he single-handedly brought down the Teslacrypt C2 servers and forced the attackers to cease their DDoS attacks on his employer’s network.  That prompted some investigation by conference attendees on the legitimacy of the speaker, there is a pretty entertaining thread on Twitter.  But these things happen and will continue to happen so long as proper vetting isn’t done.  But as a first run conference, you can’t be too picky.  Speakers are not exactly knocking down your door to get accepted.  But that all comes with time.

It was pretty clear their target audience was not the seasoned professional, but that is ok.  In fact, you are hoping that those guys and gals will fill in your talk slots.  There were a good number of students attending which, I think, is great!  Hopefully they came away with more than I did from the conference and will continue to grow their skills and get out to some of the bigger conferences.

The Cost – No swag, no food, what did my 125 bucks get me?

When deciding to put on such an event, the topic of cost will be a big piece of the puzzle.  The goal should be to keep the cost low for the attendees.  Not many people are going to want shell out a ton of cash for a first run conference.  Even with the cost of $125 for a non-student, I still registered to attend as I am an avid supporter of furthering the education of the community and Albany is not a far drive.  Unfortunately, I left the conferencing wondering what I actually paid for?  I didn’t get any real swag besides what was available at the vendor tables, no free conference t-shirt, the badge was a basic plastic card badge, there was no breakfast or lunch provided on either day.  I’ve attended BSides events with a much lower cost to register ($20 or less) that included a t-shirt, breakfast, and lunch.  That is what your sponsors are for!  Your purpose for this first run conference should be to get people in the door so that they will come back next year.  As your conference grows you can bump the cost up as the demand to attend may increase.  Now, thankfully, not everyone had to pay the higher cost.  Students were offered a $50 ticket, still pretty high in my opinion.  Hopefully they pay attention to their feedback survey and work to bring the costs down or at least offer more to justify it.

Other thoughts…

Time management certainly needs some improvement.  It did not appear that any of the talks had a time keeper.  This caused the more long-winded speakers to go well over their allotted time which ate into the next speaker’s block.  Things like this can certainly throw off the whole schedule if your talks are tight.  But you will luck out during these first runs by the less experience speaker ending early.  After the keynote on Friday, there was little direction from the conference organizers on logistics.  There was no mentioning of lunch possibilities or plans for later that evening.  We were kind of left to figure that out on our own.  You need to assume that there may be a fair amount of people coming in from outside the area.  You don’t need to have a big party but you should look to the sponsors for possibly hosting a happy hour.  After the last talk, attendees just sort of went off on their own as they were not sure what else to do.  Again, if I was paying $20 bucks for a BSides event, it probably wouldn’t be a big deal, but this was close to the same price as DerbyCon but with a fraction of the content.

Summary of suggestions for next year:

  • Better time management.
  • Better vetting of speakers – don’t pollute the minds of the young by subjecting them to charlatans!
  • Swag bag – give me something to take back with me other than your event program!
  • Food, at least cover breakfast for those driving in the morning of the event.
  • Keep in contact with the attendees throughout the event, not just at the beginning and the end.
  • Look at adding a lock picking village separate from the Hardware hacking village.
  • Make the CTF an internet based one so people can work on it from their hotel rooms.

InfoSec Career “Quick-start” guide

  1. Install Kali
  2. Pwn all the things
  3. Collect big paycheck!

So what I really want to accomplish with this post is to provide a series of sources to help you get going in your infosec career.  I had a much longer post going on about building a good base of other technical skills and such but lets just get to the meat of it.

Online Training

Free Resources:

  • Codecademy – Offers a number of free courses with added features if you upgrade to a pro subscription.  Great place to learn Python and Ruby.
  • Udacity – Much wider selection of programming courses, possibly better place to start for you App Sec types.
  • Microsoft Virtual Academy – Yes, even MS has a ton of free training resources.  Powershell to .NET C#!

Paid Sources

  • PluralSight – 30 bucks a month and a free trial.  They cover a wide variety of topics from CISSP to OWASP Top 10 for .NET with Troy Hunt.
  • ITProTV – Covers a wide variety of content spanning IT, probably a good place to start if you need to build up those base skills.  A bit pricier than PluralSight but has a stronger focus on IT in general.  Also you can probably find a discount code if you listen to Paul’s Security Weekly.


  • Security Weekly – They have expanded beyond the initial Security Weekly podcast to cover Enterprise, Startups, and Securing your digital life.  Listen to them all or pick and choose!  The team is great and you can’t go wrong, they will get you asking “What is the problem we are trying to solve??”
  • Risky Business – Covers the weekly security news from an Aussie perspective and includes special segments and interviews.
  • Southern Fried Security – Weekly-ish topical security discussions from the south.
  • SANS Internet Storm Center (ISC) – a quick 5-7 minute daily micro-cast covering security highlights.

Social Media

Twitter – Pretty much start with the people who host the above podcasts and the ones followed by our twitter account.  It is a great place to start interacting with the active security community.

Conferences / Meetups

  • Security BSides –  Spawned out of rejected CFPs from Blackhat 2009, Security BSides has evolved into a global series of events put on by local security communities.  This is a great place to get your feet wet and the cost is free to minimal.
  • DerbyCon –  5 day con down in Louisville, KY.  One of my personal favorites if you can fly and afford the hotel.  If you are in a reasonable distance you can also drive.  They have 2 days of training sessions before the actual conference.  It is a more intimate conference compared to the likes of DEF CON.  They also include nightly activities and a CTF that has something for all skill levels.  When you are there make sure to stop by the hardware hacking and lockpick villages!
  • CircleCity Con – I can’t speak on this one but the organizers are a great bunch.  If you can get to Indianapolis in June, check this one out!
  • Thotcon – another small con, it already happened this year but put it on your calendar for next year if you are going to be in the Chicago area.
  • DEFCON – Can’t mention the others without mentioning this one.  Without Blackhat and DEFCON we would not have the community that we have now.  I have yet to attend either of these but it is on the bucket list.
  • Meetups – Google search for local groups in your area.  Check around at Maker and Hacker spaces.

Other Resources

So that is it for now, hopefully you found this useful.  If you have other resources you come across feel free to message me on twitter and I will post an updated list.  Good luck and remember, if you are looking for your first official security gig, don’t be afraid to apply even if you think you are not qualified.  The smart employers may look past the lack of skills if you can demonstrate the right mindset for this work.


BSidesCT Azure Security Talk

As I sit here on the nice shady patio enjoying my morning coffee, I figured I should probably post up my slide deck from my first official talk.  First of all BSidesCT was great!  The organizers made some classy laser cut badges this year and the CTF was a good time (actually got 4th in it!).  Will I submit another?  Who knows?  I think I will build on it a bit and learn more about ASP.NET in the process.  Ok, on to the side deck as my yard work is calling (thought I took Friday off for fun?)

Of Course My Cloud App is Secure, It’s in Azure

Some notes to add to the deck when it comes to the logging Azure Websites:

  • Azure has added the ability to bring log files down via FTP/FTPS.
  • They have added other log tools such as Log Stream which lets you watch your application and web log activity.
  • Azure PowerShell can do it using get-azurewebsitelog –name <appname> -Tail
  • Azure Powershell can do it with save-azurewebsitelogSaves to zip in directory you run the command from.

Other items to note when moving to any cloud solution:

  • Many security features are not enabled by default, though Microsoft does notify you of certain ones to turn on through Security Center
  • You can encrypt your Azure SQL Databases!
  • You can enable 2FA for your Azure/Live Account as well as implementing it within Azure for Azure AD or Web Apps.
  • Review your SLAs!!!
  • And of course way the risks of any cloud service.  Not all data is created equal and some of it is better off staying on-premise.

OK the temp is rising and it isn’t even noon yet, the yard awaits!

Anatomy of a Javascript Downloader

So one of your users got an email from a supposed vendor with an attached invoice.  The invoice wasn’t a PDF, word doc, or even an excel sheet.  It was a zip file, and the user opened it as well as opening the “.js” attachment.  Now they called you explaining that they can no longer open any files on their computer or their network share.  The files have all been renamed and the user  has no idea what the heck happened.  You already have a good idea that they downloaded some type of crypto ransomware.  But how did it get through??  You thought you had adequate protection with antivirus as well as web/email filtering.  After chatting with the user, you were able to obtain the original email that she opened unfortunately there wasn’t much you could get from it.  The email address it came from was most likely compromised, so you added it to your anti-spam black list.  You noticed a bunch of files in the zip but when you tried to look at them in notepad it was just a big blob of code that didn’t make sense.

Fig. 1 raw javascript file

Fig. 1 raw javascript file

There are only a few areas that might look like readable code, but most of the file is what we call “obfuscated”.  The malware author encoded most of the code which helps prevent typical anti-virus software from picking up on the malicious parts.  Also this is javascript which could also be used for legitimate purposes.  At this point you could submit the samples to your AV vendor so they could update their definitions and protect the rest of your users from infection.  You can also upload them to But what does this file really do?  It is obfuscated so most online analysis tools may not be able to pick up on the actual instructions.  These javascript files are usually just the delivery method for the cryptoware and that is where Remnux comes in to help.

REMnux-logoRemnux is a Linux toolkit for reverse engineering and analyzing malware. It has a number of different analysis tools to assist in malware analysis.  One of my favorites for handling these types of files is JSDetox.  This is a docker based app that will analyze the messy javascript code seen in Fig. 1.  In order to start it up, just type JSDetox in a terminal window.  It will then instruct you on how to start the Docker image (See Fig. 2.).  Once it starts up you will then be able to connect to http://localhost:3000.

Fig. 2 JSDetox Startup

Fig. 2 JSDetox Startup

Fig. 3 JSDetox Dashboard

Fig. 3 JSDetox Dashboard

Open the browser in Remnux and connect to http://localhost:3000.  You will then need to upload the obfuscated javascript file in order to complete analysis.  Simply click the “Upload” button and choose the bad JS file.  If you click the “Reformat” button, it will organize the Javascript code into a more structured layout.  Unfortunately this will not deobfuscate the code.  (See Fig 4.)

Fig. 4 Reformatted

Fig. 4 Reformatted

Detoxed Javascript Code

Fig. 5 Detoxed Javascript Code

Now lets make some sense of it!  Click on “Analyze” then scroll down to look at the deobfuscated javascript code (See Fig. 5).  It begins to make a little more sense right?  The code builds out a number of variables that are then put together further down via instructions.  What it eventually does is calls out to a URL using a GET request.  It downloads and runs an executable in the computer’s default TEMP directory (See Fig 6).

Fig 6. Instructions

Fig 6. Instructions

At this point you can examine other systems for possible infection by looking for the executable file in the temp directory.  You can also take the URL and add it to your web filter block list.  You should also check your email service to ensure you can block such files from making it to your users.  Google Apps does a pretty good job at blocking these types of messages.  Microsoft Exchange requires a bit of magic with Transport rules as it’s default Exchange Online Protection service doesn’t block .js files nor does it look inside zip files.  If you have some form of anti-spam or email gateway security solution in place, it should prevent these as well.  But if you are a small business, you may not be so lucky to have a budget for such things.  Good luck and happy hunting!!

Update 5/6/2017

As a follow-up to this post, you can also look at using a group policy to set the default application for javascript files.  Currently it is set to open with the Microsoft Windows Script Based Host (wscript.exe).  Set js files to open with Notepad and they won’t execute.  That being said, always verify that production applications are not utilizing local javascript or else you may have a bad day.  I have never seen anything in my travels that would justify such things but you never know.

Goings on in and around the Nutmeg State…

Apologies for not posting anything in a while.  Hopefully that will change over the next couple weeks.  We will keep it simple and this will just be a simple events posting…

Source Conference Boston 2016
May 18-19th with training on the 16-17th.  Timing is great as this rolls right into…

BSidesBoston 2016
Training on May 20th, conference on May 21st.  Tickets are almost sold out!

Further down the line in July, BSidesCT comes back! CFP is open and it will once again be held at Quinnipiac University’s Rocky Top Student Center.


Regarding the Dell Security Bug

First of all read up on the details over at Krebs On Security.  He has a pretty good explanation as to what Dell did as well as additional reference sites on the matter.  The Reddit discussion in the reference section has some good technical details.  But what does all this mean to the regular folks out there who buy their Dell laptops and like to enjoy their drink while using the free wi-fi at the local coffee shop?   Continue reading